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|The Six Sigma approach uses a number of related measures to assess the performance of operations processes.
• A defect is a failure to meet customer-required performance (defining performance measures from a customer’s perspective is an important part of the Six Sigma approach)
• A defect unit or item is any unit of output that contains a defect (i.e. only units of output with no defects are not defective Wholesale Toronto Blue Jays Jersey , defective units will have one or more than one defect)
• A defect opportunity is the number of different ways a unit of output can fail to meet customer requirements (simple products or services will have few defect opportunities, but very complex products or services may have hundreds of different ways of being defective)
• Proportion defective is the percentage or fraction of units that have one or more defect.
• Process yield is the percentage or fraction of total units produced by a process that are defect-free (i.e. 1 − proportion defective)
• Defect per unit (DPU) is the average number of defects on a unit of output (the number of defects divided by the number of items produced)
• Defects per opportunity are the proportion or percentage of defects divided by the total number of defect opportunities (the number of defects divided by (the number items produced × the number of opportunities per item)
• A defect per million opportunities (DPMO) is exactly what it says, the number of defects which the process will produce if there were one million opportunities to do so.
• The Sigma measurement is derived from the DPMO and is the number of standard deviations of the process variability that will fit within the customer specification limits.
Although the scope of Six Sigma is disputed, among elements frequently associated with Six Sigma include the following:
• Customer-driven objectives – Six Sigma is sometimes defined as ‘the process of comparing process outputs against customer requirements’. It uses a number of measures to assess the performance of operations processes. In particular it expresses performance in terms of defects per million opportunities (DPMO). This is exactly what it says, the number of defects which the process will produce if there were one million opportunities to do so. This is then related to the ‘Sigma measurement’ of a process and is the number of standard deviations of the process variability that will fit within the customer specification limits.
• Use of evidence – Although Six Sigma is not the first of the new approaches to operations to use statistical methods it has done a lot to emphasize the use of quantitative evidence. In fact much of the considerable training required by Six Sigma consultants is devoted to mastering quantitative analytical techniques.
• Structured improvement cycle – The structured improvement cycle used in Six Sigma is the DMAIC cycle.
• Process capability and control – Not surprisingly Wholesale Texas Rangers Jersey , given its origins, process capability and control is important within the Six Sigma approach.
• Process design – Latterly Six Sigma proponents also include process design into the collection of elements that define the Six Sigma approach.
• Structured training and organization of improvement – The Six Sigma approach holds that improvement initiatives can only be successful if significant resources and training are devoted to their management.
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